The University of Western Australia

UWA Staff Profile

Ipsum Lorem

Gillian Rhodes

Professor Gillian Rhodes

Professor
Psychology, School of

Contact details
Address
School of Psychology
The University of Western Australia (M304)
35 Stirling Highway
CRAWLEY WA 6009
Australia
Phone
+61 8 6488 3251
Fax
+61 8 6488 1006
Email
gillian.rhodes@uwa.edu.au
Qualifications
BSc Cant., MSc Auck., PhD Stan.
Biography
Gillian Rhodes received her PhD from Stanford University in 1986 and is currently an Australian Research Council Professorial Fellow and Winthrop Professor of Psychology at the University of Western Australia. She leads the Person Perception Program of the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders. Her research focuses on how we perceive, read, and recognize faces. She is the author of Superportraits: Caricatures and recognition, and has co-edited several volumes on face perception, including most recently, The Oxford Handbook of Face Perception.
Key research
Faces convey a wealth of information that guides our social interactions. At a glance we can assess a person’s identity, gender, ethnicity, age, attractiveness, emotional state and focus of attention. This fluency is remarkable given the difficulty of the discriminations required. We aim to understand the mechanisms (perceptual, cognitive, neural and evolutionary) of person perception and how they relate to other cognitive abilities and social functioning. A major new focus is on how person perception skills emerge during typical development and in children with autism. Our long-term goal is to develop interventions to enhance person perception, and ultimately, social functioning and quality of life in individuals with person perception difficulties. Our work is conducted in the FaceLab http://www.psy.uwa.edu.au/facelab/index.htm, which hosts the Person Perception program for the ARC Center of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders.
Publications
Books

Calder, A. J., Rhodes, G., Johnson, M. H. & Haxby, J. V. (Eds.) (2011). The Oxford Handbook of Face Perception. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Clifford, C. W. G., & Rhodes, G. (Eds.) (2005). Fitting the mind to the world: Adaptation and aftereffects in high-level vision. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Peterson, M. P., & Rhodes, G. (Eds.) (2003). Perception of faces, objects and scenes: Analytic and holistic processing. Cambridge, MA: Oxford University Press.

Rhodes, G., & Zebrowitz, L. A. (Eds.) (2002). Facial attractiveness: Evolutionary, cognitive and social perspectives. Westport, CT: Ablex.

Rhodes, G. (1996). Superportraits: Caricatures and recognition. Hove: The Psychology Press.


Journal Articles

2012

Jeffery, L., Rathbone, C., Read, A. & Rhodes, G. (2012). Children's face aftereffects transfer across viewpoints: Evidence that children's and adults' face representations do not differ in view-specificity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance. [accepted 26.4.12].

2011

Armann, R., Jeffery, L., Calder, A. J., & Rhodes, G. (2011). Race-specific norms for coding face identity and a functional role for norms. Journal of Vision, 11(13), 1-14; doi:10.1167/11.13.9

Jeffery, L., & Rhodes, G. (2011). Insights into the development of face recognition mechanisms revealed by face aftereffects. British Journal of Psychology, 102, 799-815.

Jeffery, L., Rhodes, G., McKone, E., Pellicano, E., Crookes, K., & Taylor, E. (2011). Distinguishing norm-based from exemplar-based coding of identity in children: Evidence from face identity aftereffects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 37(6), 1824-1840.

Rhodes, G., Jaquet, E., Jeffery, L., Evangelista, E., Keane, J., & Calder, A. (2011). Sex-specific norms code face identity. Journal of Vision, 11(1), 1-11.

Rhodes, G., Jeffery, L., Evangelista, E., Ewing, L., Peters, M., & Taylor, L. (2011). Enhanced attention amplifies face adaptation. Vision Research, 51, 1811-1819.

Rhodes G., Lie, H. C., Thevaraja, N., Taylor, L., Iredell, N., et al. (2011). Facial attractiveness ratings from video-clips and static images tell the same story. PloS ONE 6(11): e26653. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026653.

Simmons, L. W., Peters, M. & Rhodes, G. (2011). Low pitched voices are perceived as masculine and attractive but do they predict semen quality in men? PLoS ONE, 6(12), e29271. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029271.

Susilo, T., McKone, E., Dennett, H., Darke, H., Palermo, R., Hall, A., Pidcock, M., Dawel, A., Jeffery, L., Wilson, C. E., & Rhodes, G. (2011). Face recognition impairments despite normal holistic processing and face space coding: Evidence from a case of developmental prosopagnosia. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 27, 636-664.

2010

Burkhardt, A., Blaha, L. M., Schneider Jurs, B., Rhodes, G., Jeffery, L., Wyatte, D., Delong, J., & Busey, T. (2010). Adaptation modulates the electrophysical substrates of perceived facial distortion: Support for opponent coding. Neuropsychologia, 48, 3743-3756.

Ewing, L., Rhodes & G., & Pellicano, E. (2010). Have you got the look? Gaze direction affects judgments of facial attractiveness. Visual Cognition, 18, 321-330.

Glauert, R., Rhodes, G., Fink, B., & Grammer, K. (2010). Body dissatisfaction and attentional bias to thin bodies. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 43, 42-49.

Jeffery, L., McKone, E., Haynes, R., Firth, E., Pellicano, E., & Rhodes, G. (2010). Four-to-six-year-old children use norm-based coding in face-space. Journal of Vision,10(5):18, 1-19.

Leopold. D.L., & Rhodes, G. (2010). A comparative view of face perception. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 124, 233-251.

Lie, H., Rhodes, G., & Simmons, L. (2010). Is genetic diversity associated with mating success in humans? Animal Behaviour, 79, 903-909.

Lie, H. C., Simmons, L. W. & Rhodes, G. (2010). Genetic dissimilarity, genetic diversity, and mate preferences in humans. Evolution & Human Behavior, 31, 48-58.

Mondloch, C. J., Elms, N., Maurer, D., Rhodes, G., Hayward, W. H., Tanaka, J. W., & Zhou, G. (2010). Processes underlying the cross-race effect: An investigation of holistic, featural and relational processing of own- versus other-race faces. Perception, 39, 1065-1085.

Rhodes, G., Lie, H. C., Ewing, L. A., Evangelista, E., & Tanaka, J. W. (2010). Does perceived race affect discrimination and recognition of ambiguous-race faces? A test of the socio-cognitive hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 36, 217-223.

Rhodes, G., Watson, T. L., Jeffery, L., & Clifford, C. W. G. (2010). Perceptual adaptation helps us identify faces. Vision Research, 50, 963-968.

Talati, Z., Rhodes, G., & Jeffery, L. (2010). Now you see it, now you don’t: Shedding light on the Thatcher illusion. Psychological Science, 21(2), 219-221.


2009

Glauert, R., Rhodes, G., Byrne, S., Fink, B., & Grammer, K. (2009). Body dissatisfaction and the effects of perceptual exposure on body norms and ideals. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 42(5), 443-452.

Lie, H. C., Simmons, L. W. & Rhodes, G. (2009). Does genetic diversity predict health in humans? PLOSOne, 4(7), e6391, 1-7.

Peters, M., Simmons, L. W., & Rhodes, G (2009). Preferences across the menstrual cycle for masculinity and symmetry in photographs of male faces and bodies. PLOSOne, 4, e4138, 1-7.

Pimperton, H., Pellicano, E., Jeffery, L., & Rhodes, G. (2009). The role of higher-level adaptive coding mechanisms in the development of face recognition. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 104, 229-238.

Rhodes, G., Evangelista, E., & Jeffery, L. (2009). Orientation-sensitivity of face identity aftereffects. Vision Research, 49, 2379-2385.

Rhodes, G., Ewing, L., Hayward, W. G., Maurer, D., Mondloch, C. J., & Tanaka, J. W. (2009). Contact and other-race effects in configural and component processing of faces. British Journal of Psychology, 100, 717-728.

Rhodes, G. & Jeffery, L. (2009). The Thatcher illusion: Now you see it, now you don’t. Perception, 38, 927-929 [invited commentary].

Rhodes, G., Locke, V., Ewing, L., & Evangelista, E. (2009). Race coding and the other-race effect in face recognition. Perception, 38, 232-241.

Rhodes, G., Louw, K., & Evangelista, E. (2009). Perceptual adaptation to facial asymmetries. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 503-508.

Rhodes, G., Michie, P. T., Hughes, M. E., & Byatt, G. (2009). FFA and OFA show sensitivity to spatial relations in faces. European Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 721-733.

2008

Hayward, W. G., Rhodes, G., & Schwaninger, A. (2008). An own-race advantage for components as well as configurations in face recognition. Cognition, 106, 1017-1027.

Hancock, K., & Rhodes, G. (2008). Contact, configural coding and the other-race effect in face recognition. British Journal of Psychology, 99, 45-56.

Jaquet, E. & Rhodes, G. (2008). Face aftereffects indicate dissociable, but not distinct, coding of male and female faces. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 34, 101-112.

Jaquet, E., Rhodes, G., & Hayward, W. G. (2008). Race-contingent aftereffects suggest distinct perceptual norms for different race faces. Visual Cognition, 16, 734-753.

Lie, H. C., Rhodes, G., & Simmons, L. W. (2008). Genetic diversity revealed in human faces. Evolution, 62(10), 2473-2486.
[Editor’s choice, Faculty of 1000: Daniel Promislow: Faculty of 1000 Biology, 24 Oct 2008 http://www.f1000biology.com/article/id/1123444/evaluation]

Nishimura, M., Maurer, D., Jeffery, L., Pellicano, E., & Rhodes, G. (2008). Fitting the child’s mind to the world: Adaptive norm-based coding of facial identity in 8-year-olds. Developmental Science, 11, 620-627.

Peters, M., Rhodes, G., & Simmons, L. W. (2008). Does attractiveness in men provide cues to semen quality? Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 21, 572-579.

Peters, M., Simmons, L. W. & Rhodes, G. (2008). Testosterone is associated with mating success but not attractiveness or masculinity in human males. Animal Behaviour, 76, 297-303.

2007

Jaquet, E., Rhodes, G., & Hayward, W. G. (2007). Opposite aftereffects for Chinese and Caucasian faces are selective for social category information and not just physical face differences. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 60, 1457-1467.

Jeffery, L., Rhodes, G., & Busey, T. (2007). Broadly tuned, view-specific coding of face shape: Opposing figural aftereffects can be induced in different views. Vision Research, 47, 3070-3077.

McKone, E., Brewer, J. L., MacPherson, S, Rhodes, G., & Hayward, W. G. (2007). Familiar other-race faces show normal holistic processing and are robust to perceptual stress. Perception, 36, 224-248.

Palermo, R. & Rhodes, G. (2007). Are you always on my mind? A review of how face perception and attention interact. Neuropsychologia, 45, 75-92.

Pellicano, E., Jeffery, L., Burr, D., & Rhodes, G. (2007). Abnormal adaptive face-coding mechanisms in children with autism spectrum disorder. Current Biology, 17, 1508-1512.

Peters, M., Rhodes, G., & Simmons, L. W. (2007). Contributions of the face and body to overall attractiveness. Animal Behaviour, 73, 937-942.

Potter, T., Corneille, O., Ruys, K. I., & Rhodes, G. (2007). S/he’s just another pretty face: A multidimensional scaling approach to face attractiveness and variability. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 368-372.

Rhodes, G., Jeffery, L., Clifford, C. W. G., & Leopold, D. A. (2007). The timecourse of higher-level face aftereffects. Vision Research, 47, 2291-2296.

Rhodes, G., Maloney, L. T., Turner, J., & Ewing, L. (2007). Adaptive face coding and discrimination around the average face. Vision Research, 47, 974-989.

Rhodes, G., Peters, M., & Ewing, L. A. (2007). Specialised higher-level mechanisms for facial-symmetry perception: Evidence from orientation-tuning functions, Perception, 36, 1804-1812.

Rhodes, G., Yoshikawa, S., Palermo, R., Simmons, L. W., Peters, M., Lee, K., Halberstadt, J., & Crawford, J. R. (2007). Perceived health contributes to the attractiveness of facial symmetry, averageness and sexual dimorphism. Perception, 36, 1244-1252.

2006

Jeffery, L., Rhodes, G., & Busey, T. (2006). View-specific norms code face shape. Psychological Science, 17, 501-505.

Koehler, N., Rhodes, G., Simmons, L. W., & Zebrowitz, L. A. (2006). Do cyclic changes in women’s face preferences target cues to long-term health? Social Cognition, 24, 525-541.

Pellicano, E., Rhodes, G., & Peters, M. (2006). Are preschoolers sensitive to configural information in faces? Developmental Science, 9, 270-277.

Rhodes, G. (2006). The evolution of facial attractiveness. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 199-226.

Rhodes, G., Hayward, W. G., & Winkler, C. (2006). Expert face coding: Configural and component coding of own-race and other-race faces. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 499-505.

Rhodes, G., & Jeffery, L. (2006). Adaptive norm-based coding of facial identity. Vision Research, 46, 2977-2987.

2005

Leopold, D. A., Rhodes, G., Müller, K-M & Jeffery, L. (2005). The dynamics of visual adaptation to faces. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 272, 897–904.

Rhodes, G, Halberstadt, J., Jeffery, L., & Palermo, R. (2005). The attractiveness of average faces is not a generalized mere exposure effect. Social Cognition, 23, 205-217.

Rhodes, G, Lee, K., Palermo, R., Weiss, M., Yoshikawa, S., Clissa, P. Williams, T., & Peters, M. (2005). Attractiveness of own-race, other-race and mixed-race faces. Perception, 34, 319-340.

Rhodes, G., Peters, M., Lee, K., Morrone, C. M., & Burr, D. (2005). Higher-level mechanisms detect facial symmetry. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 272, 1379-1384.

Rhodes, G. Simmons, L., & Peters, M. (2005). Attractiveness and sexual behavior: Does attractiveness enhance mating success? Evolution & Human Behavior, 26, 186-201.

Winkler, C., & Rhodes, G. (2005). Perceptual adaptation affects the attractiveness of female bodies. British Journal of Psychology, 96, 141-154.

2004

Byatt, G., & Rhodes, G. (2004). Identification of own-race and other-race faces: Implications for the representation of race in face-space. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11(40), 735-741.

Koehler, N., Simmons, L. W., & Rhodes, G. (2004). How well does second to fourth digit ratio in hands correlate with other indications of masculinity in males? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B (Suppl.), 271, S296-S298.

Koehler, N., Simmons, L. W., Rhodes, G., & Peters, M. (2004). The relationship between sexual dimorphism in human faces and fluctuating asymmetry. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B (Suppl.), 271, S233-S236. (DOI 10.1098/rsbl.2003.0146).

Rhodes, G. (2004). Facial attractiveness: The role of evolutionary mechanisms and experience. Journal of Cultural and Evolutionary Psychology, 2, 81-92. [Invited contribution to special issue on Social Cognition: Evolutionary and cultural perspectives, Eds. J. Forgas, J. Laszlo & C. Pleh].

Rhodes, G., Byatt, G., Michie, P. T., & Puce, A. (2004). Is the fusiform face area specialized for faces, individuation or expert individuation? Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, 1-15.

Rhodes, G., Jeffery, L., Watson, T., Jaquet, E., Winkler, C., Clifford, C. W. G. (2004). Orientation-contingent face aftereffects and implications for face coding mechanisms. Current Biology, 14, 2119-2123.

Simmons, L. W., Firman, R. C., Rhodes, G., & Peters, M. (2004). Human sperm competition: testis size, sperm production, and rates of extra-pair copulations. Animal Behaviour, 68, 297-302.

Simmons, L. W., Rhodes, G., Peters, M. & Koehler, N. (2004). Are human preferences for facial symmetry focused on signals of developmental instability? Behavioral Ecology, 15, 864-871.

Zebrowitz, L. A., & Rhodes, G. (2004). Sensitivity to “bad genes” and the anomalous face overgeneralization effect: Cue validity, cue utilization, and accuracy in judging intelligence and health. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 28, 167-185.


2003

Halberstadt, J., & Rhodes, G. (2003). It’s not just the average face that’s attractive: The attractiveness of averageness in computer-manipulated birds, fish and automobiles. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 10(1), 149-156.

Palermo, R., & Rhodes, G. (2003). Change detection in the flicker paradigm: Do faces have an advantage? Visual Cognition, 10, 683-713.

Pellicano, L., & Rhodes, G. (2003). Holistic processing of faces in preschool children and adults. Psychological Science, 14, 618-622.

Pellicano, L., & Rhodes, G. (2003). The role of eye gaze in understanding other minds. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 21, 33-43.

Rhodes, G., Chan, J., Zebrowitz, L. A., & Simmons, L. W. (2003). Does sexual dimorphism in human faces signal health? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B (Suppl.), 270, S93-95. (DOI 10.1098/rsbl.2003.0023).

Rhodes, G., Jeffery, L., Watson, T. L., Clifford, C. W. G., & Nakayama, K. (2003). Fitting the mind to the world: Face adaptation and attractiveness aftereffects. Psychological Science, 14, 558-566.

Scognamillo, R., Rhodes, G., Morrone, C., & Burr, D. (2003). A feature-based model of symmetry detection. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 270, 1727-1733.


2002

Faulkner, T. F., Rhodes, G., Palermo, R., Pellicano, E., & Ferguson, D. (2002). Recognizing the un-real McKoy: Priming and the modularity of face recognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9, 327-334.

Koehler, N., Rhodes, G., & Simmons, L. (2002). Are human female preferences for symmetrical male faces enhanced when conception is likely? Animal Behaviour, 64, 233-238.

Palermo, R., & Rhodes, G. (2002). The influence of divided attention on holistic face perception. Cognition, 82, 225-257.

Rhodes, G., Geddes, K., Jeffery, L., Dziurawiec, S., & Clark, A. (2002). Are average and symmetric faces attractive to infants? Discrimination and looking preferences. Perception, 31, 315-322.

Zebrowitz, L. A., Hall, J. A., Murphy, N. A., & Rhodes, G. (2002). Looking smart and looking good: Facial cues to intelligence and their origins. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 238-249.


2001

Ferguson, D. P., Rhodes, G., Lee, K., & Sriram, N. (2001). “They all look alike to me”: Prejudice and cross-race face recognition. British Journal of Psychology, 92, 567-577.

Rhodes, G., Yoshikawa, S., Clark, A., Lee, K., McKay, R., & Akamatsu, S. (2001). Attractiveness of facial averageness and symmetry in non-Western populations: In search of biologically based standards of beauty. Perception, 30, 611-625.

Rhodes, G., Halberstadt, J., & Brajkovich, G. (2001). Generalization of mere exposure effects in social stimuli. Social Cognition, 19, 57-70.

Rhodes, G., Zebrowitz, L. A., Clark, A., Kalick, S. M., Hightower, A., & McKay, R. (2001). Do facial averageness and symmetry signal health? Evolution & Human Behavior, 22, 31-46.


2000

Murray, J. E., Yong, E., & Rhodes, G. (2000). Revisiting the perception of upside-down faces. Psychological Science, 11, 498-502.

Halberstadt, J., & Rhodes, G. (2000). The attractiveness of non-face averages: Implications for an evolutionary explanation of the attractiveness of average faces. Psychological Science, 11, 285-289.

Lee, K., Byatt, G., & Rhodes, G. (2000). Caricature effects, distinctiveness and identification: Testing the face-space framework. Psychological Science, 11, 379-385.

Rhodes, G., Hickford, C., & Jeffery, L. (2000). Sex-typicality and attractiveness: Are supermale and superfemale faces super-attractive. British Journal of Psychology, 91, 125-140.


1999

Rhodes, G., Roberts, J., & Simmons, L. (1999). Reflections on symmetry and attractiveness. Psychology, Evolution and Gender, 1, 279-295.

Rhodes, G., Sumich, A., & Byatt, G. (1999). Are average facial configurations only attractive because of their symmetry? Psychological Science, 10, 52-58.


1998

Rhodes, G., Proffitt, F., Grady, J. M., & Sumich, A. (1998). Facial symmetry and the perception of beauty. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 5, 659-669.

Rhodes, G., Carey, S., Byatt, G., & Proffitt, F. (1998). Coding spatial variations in faces and simple shapes: A test of two models. Vision Research, 38, 2307-2321.

Byatt, G., & Rhodes, G. (1998). Recognition of own-race and other-race caricatures: Implications for models of face recognition. Vision Research, 38, 2455-2468.


1997

Rhodes, G., Byatt, G., Tremewan, T., & Kennedy, A. (1997). Facial distinctiveness and the power of caricatures. Perception, 26, 207-223.


1996

Pullan, L., & Rhodes, G. (1996). Why are inverted faces hard to recognize? A test of the relational feature hypothesis. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 25, 9-11.

Rhodes, G., & Tremewan, T. (1996). Averageness, exaggeration and facial attractiveness. Psychological Science, 7, 105-110.


1994

Rhodes, G., & Tremewan, T. (1994). Understanding face recognition: Caricature effects, inversion and the homogeneity problem. Visual Cognition, 1, 275-311.

[Reprinted in V. Bruce & G. Humphreys (Eds.) (1994). Object and face recognition. Hove: Psychology Press]

Rhodes, G. (1994). Secrets of the face. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 23, 3-17.


1993

Rhodes, G., Brake, S., & Atkinson, A. (1993). What's lost in inverted faces? Cognition, 47, 25-57.

Rhodes, G., Parkin, A. J., & Tremewan, T. (1993). Semantic priming and sensitivity in lexical decision. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 19, 154-165.

Rhodes, G., & Tremewan, T. (1993). The Simon then Garfunkel effect: Semantic priming, sensitivity and the modularity of face recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 25, 147-187.

Rhodes, G. (1993). Configural coding, expertise and the right hemisphere advantage for face recognition. Brain & Cognition, 22, 19-41.

Rhodes, G. (1993). When do caricatures look good? New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 22, 110-113.


1992

Fletcher, G., Rosanowski, J., Rhodes, G., & Lange, C. (1992). Accuracy and speed of causal processing: Experts versus novices in social judgment. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 28, 320-338.


1990

Rhodes, G., & Lynskey, M. (1990). Face perception: Attributions, asymmetries and stereotypes. British Journal of Social Psychology, 29, 374-377.

Rhodes, G., & McLean, I. G. (1990). Distinctiveness and expertise effects with homogeneous stimuli: Towards a model of configural coding. Perception, 19, 773-794.

Rhodes, G., & Moody, J. (1990). Memory representations of unfamiliar faces: Coding of distinctive information. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 19, 70-78.

Rhodes, G., Ronke, K., & Tan, S. (1990). Asymmetries in face perception: Component processes, face specificity and expertise effects. Cortex, 26, 13-32.


1989

Rhodes, G., & Lynskey, M. (1989). Emotion in the resting face: Taking sides. British Journal of Social Psychology, 27, 273-278.

Rhodes, G., Tan, S., Brake, S., & Taylor, K. (1989). Expertise and configural coding in face recognition. British Journal of Psychology, 80, 313-331.

Rhodes, G., & Wooding, R. (1989). Laterality effects in identification of caricatures and photographs of famous faces. Brain & Cognition, 9, 201-209.

Silyn Roberts, L., & Rhodes, G. (1989). Knowing your limits: Expertise and the feeling of knowing. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 18, 71-75.


1988

Rhodes, G. (1988). Looking at faces: First-order and second-order features as determinants of facial appearance. Perception, 17, 48-63.


1987

Rhodes, G. (1987). Auditory attention and the representation of spatial information. Perception & Psychophysics, 42, 1-14.

Rhodes, G., Brennan, S., & Carey, S. (1987). Identification and ratings of caricatures: Implications for mental representations of faces. Cognitive Psychology, 19, 473-497.


1986

Rhodes, G. (1986). Memory for lateral asymmetries in well-known faces: Evidence for configural information in memory representations of faces. Memory & Cognition, 14, 209-219.


1985

Rhodes, G. (1985). Lateralized processes in face recognition. British Journal of Psychology, 76, 249-271.

Rhodes, G. (1985). Perceptual asymmetries in face recognition. Brain & Cognition, 4, 197-218.

Rhodes, G., & O'Leary, A. (1985). Imagery effects on early visual processing. Perception & Psychophysics, 37, 382-388.


1984

O'Leary, A., & Rhodes, G. (1984). Cross-modal effects on visual and auditory object perception. Perception & Psychophysics, 35, 565-569.


Book Chapters

Rhodes, G., & Calder, A. J. (2012). Face perception. In J. S. Werner & L. M. Chalupa (Eds.). The New Visual Neurosciences. MIT Press [publication date 2013].

Rhodes, G., & Jeffery, L. (2012). Face perception. In H. Pashler (Ed.). Encyclopedia of the Mind. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications [publication date late 2012].

Rhodes, G. (2012). Face recognition. In D. Resiberg (Ed.). Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press (forthcoming).

Rhodes, G. & Leopold, D. A. (2011). Adaptive norm-based coding of face identity. In Calder, A. J., Rhodes, G., Johnson, M. H. & Haxby, J. V. (Eds.) (2011). The Oxford Handbook of Face Perception. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rhodes, G., & Jaquet, E. (2011). Aftereffects reveal that adaptive face-coding mechanisms are selective for race and sex. In R.A. Adams Jr, N. Ambady, K. Nakayama & S. Shimojo (Eds). The Science of Social Vision. New York: Oxford University Press.

Palermo, R. & Rhodes, G. (2010). Is face processing automatic? In V. Coltheart (Ed). Tutorials in Visual Cognition (Macquarie Monographs in Cognitive Science series). New York: Psychology Press.

Rhodes, G., & Simmons, L. W. (2007). Symmetry, attractiveness and sexual dimorphism. In R. I. M. Dunbar & L. Barrett (Eds.). Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rhodes, G., Robbins, R., Jaquet, E., McKone, E., Jeffery, L., & Clifford, C. W. G. (2005). Adaptation and face perception: How aftereffects implicate norm-based coding of faces. In C. W. G. Clifford & G. Rhodes (Eds.), Fitting the mind to the world: Adaptation and aftereffects in high-level vision. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Halberstadt, J., Rhodes, G. & Catty, S. R. (2003). Subjective and objective familiarity as explanations for the attraction to average faces. In S. P. Shohov (Ed.). Advances in Psychology Research (Vol 22), New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Murray, J. E., Rhodes, G., & Schuchinsky, M. (2003). When is a face not a face? The effects of misorientation on mechanisms of face perception. In M. P. Peterson & G. Rhodes (Eds). Perception of faces, objects and scenes: Analytic and holistic processing. Cambridge, MA: Oxford University Press.

Zebrowitz, L. A. & Rhodes, G. (2002). Nature let a hundred flowers bloom: The multiple ways and wherefores of attractiveness. In G. Rhodes & L. A. Zebrowitz (Eds.). Facial attractiveness: Evolutionary, cognitive and social perspectives. Westport, CT: Ablex.

Rhodes, G., Harwood, K., Yoshikawa, S., Nishitani, M., & McLean, I. G. (2002). The attractiveness of average facial configurations: Cross-cultural evidence and the biology of beauty. In G. Rhodes & L. A. Zebrowitz (Eds.). Facial attractiveness: Evolutionary, cognitive and social perspectives. Westport, CT: Ablex.

Rhodes, G. (1996). The modularity of face recognition. In A. Kent & J. G. Williams (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Computer Science & Technology, Vol 34. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc.

Rhodes, G., & Tremewan, T. (1995). The Simon then Garfunkel effect: Priming and the modularity of mind. In P. Slezak, T. Caelli & R. Clark (Eds.), Perspectives on Cognitive Science: Theories, Experiments, and Foundations. Norwood, New Jersy: Ablex.

Rhodes, G. (1995). Face recognition and configural coding. In T. Valentine (Ed.), Cognitive and computational aspects of face recognition. London: Routledge.

McLean, I. G., & Rhodes, G. (1991). Enemy recognition in birds. In D. M. Power (Ed.), Current Ornithology: Vol. 8. New York: Plenum Press.

Rhodes, G., Tan, S., Brake, S., & Taylor, K. (1989). Race sensitivity in face recognition: An effect of different encoding processes. In A. F. Bennett & K. M. McConkey (Eds.), Cognition in individual and social contexts. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Rhodes, G. (1987). Fallibility in judgement, decision-making and perception: Are we up to living with nuclear weapons? In C. J. Burrows (Ed.), The Nuclear Predicament: Problems and Solutions. Christchurch, NZ: Peacewriters.

OTHER PUBLICATIONS, REPORTS AND THESES

Rhodes, G. & Jeffery, L. (2009). The Thatcher illusion: Now you see it, now you don’t. Perception, 38, 927-929 [invited commentary].

Rhodes, G., Yoshikawa, S., Nishitani, M., Harwood, K., Clark, A. Lee, K., & Akamatsu, S. (1999). The attractiveness of average facial configurations: Cross-cultural evidence and the biology of beauty. Technical Report of the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers (Japan), HIP99-52 (99-11), 31-36.

Rhodes, G., & Kalish, M. L. (1999). Cognitive penetration: Would we know it if we saw it? Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 22, 390-391. [Commentary].

Rhodes, G. (1996). Visual recognition - the homogeneity problem. Annual research report to the Marsden Foundation.

Rhodes, G. (1996). Review of "Perception and representation: Current issues (2nd ed.)". New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 25, p42. [Book review].

Rhodes, G. (1995). Visual recognition - the homogeneity problem. Research report to the Foundation for Research, Science & Technology.

Rhodes, G. (1994). Characterising caricatures. New Zealand Science Monthly, 5, 8-9.

Rhodes, G. (1994). Visual recognition - the homogeneity problem. Research report to the Foundation for Research, Science & Technology.

Rhodes, G. (1993). Caricature recognition and distinctiveness effects in face recognition. Research report to the Foundation for Research, Science & Technology.

Rhodes, G. (1993). The Human Condition: Lopsided, Loquacious and a Lego Expert. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 22, 117-119. [Book review].

Rhodes, G. (1991). All about faces. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 20, 79-80. [Book review].

Rhodes, G. (1990). There's more to seeing than meets the eye. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 19, 35-36. [Book review].

Rhodes, G. (1990). Expertise and race sensitivity in face recognition. Research report to the Social Sciences Research Fund Committee.

Rhodes, G. (1990). Recognizing faces. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 18, 47-49. [Book review].

Rhodes, G. (1988). Review of "Aspects of Face Processing". New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 17, 44. [Book review].

Rhodes, G. (1985). Mental representations of faces. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, U.S.A.

Rhodes, G. (1981). Perceptual asymmetries in face recognition. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Roles, responsibilities and expertise
Book Series Editor - Oxford Series in Visual Cognition (previously Advances in Visual Cognition), Oxford University Press (2003-present)
Associate Editor – Psychonomic Bulletin & Review (2007-2009)
Editorial Boards – British Journal of Psychology (2001-2006), Evolutionary Psychology (2006-2007), New Zealand Journal of Psychology (1994-2000), Perception (2006-present), Psychological Science (2005-2007), Psychonomic Bulletin & Review (2000-2006); Psychologia (2003-2010)
Attention & Performance Advisory Council, Member, 2011-present
International Advisor – Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 2008-present
Editor - New Zealand Journal of Psychology (1990-1993)
Grant Reviewer for: Australian Research Council, British Academy, Economic and Social Research Council (UK), Foundation for Research, Science & Technology (NZ), Health Research Council of NZ, Lotteries Health Research (NZ), National Science Foundation (US), Social Sciences Research Fund Committee (NZ), US-Israel Bi national Science Foundation; Canada Research Chairs program
Memberships
Fellow of the American Association for Psychological Science
Australian Psychological Society
Experimental Psychology Society (Australasian)
Human Behavior and Evolution Society
Psychonomic Society
Previous positions
Australian Professorial Fellow, School of Psychology, University of Western Australia, 2003-present
Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Western Australia, 1996-2002
Visiting Scientist, Vision Sciences Laboratory, Harvard University, April-May, 2000
Visiting Researcher, Advanced Telecommunications Research Laboratories, Human Information Processing Laboratory, Kyoto, Japan, Sep-Dec 1999
Senior Lecturer, Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, NZ, 1994-1996
Visiting Professor, Department of Psychology, Queen's University, May-Aug, 1992
Visiting Scientist, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Aug-Dec, 1992
Visiting Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Oregon (Eugene), Jan-March, 1993
Lecturer, Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, NZ, 1987-1993
Lecturer, Department of Psychology, University of Otago, NZ, 1986-87
Teaching
Perception
Neuropsychology of Vision
Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive Science
New and noteworthy
RECENT PROFESSIONAL PRESENTATIONS (2005-2012)
Perception of configural and component information in own-race and other-race faces: An fMRI study. Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Beijing, June 2012 (W. G. Hayward, M. Zhao, S-H Cheung, A. C.-N. Wong, E. K. S. Chan, Winnie Chan, G. Rhodes).

Hot or not? The psychology and biology of beauty. Invited symposium talk, Symposium: The Art and Science of Face Perception. Art Gallery of New South Wales and Australasian Experimental Psychology conference, Sydney, April 2012. Invited symposium talk, Symposium: Portraiture, Science and Beauty. Lawrence Wilson Art Gallery, Perth, June 2012.

Atypical updating of face representations with experience in children with autism. Talk given at International Meeting for Autism Research, Toronto, May 2012 (L. Ewing, L. Pellicano & G. Rhodes).

Four year-olds use norm-based coding for face identity: Evidence from face identity aftereffects. Australasian Experimental Psychology conference, Sydney, April 2012 (L. Jeffery. A. Read & G. Rhodes).

Attentional preference for attractive faces. Australasian Experimental Psychology conference, Sydney, April 2012 (N. Kloth, L. Short & G. Rhodes).

Atypical updating of face representations with experience in children with autism. Australasian Experimental Psychology conference, Sydney, April 2012 (L. Ewing, E. Pellicano & G. Rhodes).

Person perception program overview. CCD Annual Workshop, Sydney, Nov 23-24, 2011.

Insights into the development of face recognition mechanisms revealed by face aftereffects, CCD Annual Workshop, Sydney, Nov 23-24, 2011 (L. Jeffery, G. Rhodes, E. McKone, E. Pellicano, K. Crookes, E. Taylor & A. Read).

Can atypical face rewards explain face processing impairments in autism. CCD Annual Workshop, Sydney, Nov 23-24, 2011 (L. Ewing, E. Pellicano & G. Rhodes).

Why are face composites difficult to recognize? Poster, Vision Sciences Society, Florida, May 2011 (W. G. Hayward, K. Crookes, S. K. Favelle & G. Rhodes).

Does the own-race advantage in face processing have a basis in holistic processing? Talk, ICOM, York, UK, July 2011 (W. G. Hayward, K. Crookes, S. K. Favelle & G. Rhodes).

Face processing impairments in autism spectrum conditions cannot be explained by atypical reward value of faces. Paper presented at the Australasian Experimental Psychology conference, Auckland, April 2011 (L. Ewing, G. Rhodes & L. Pellicano).

Children’s face aftereffects transfer across changes in viewpoint. Paper presented at the Australasian Experimental Psychology conference, Auckland, April 2011 (L. Jeffery, C. Rathbone, A. Reid & G. Rhodes).

Adaptation and aftereffects in normal and disordered face perception. Keynote lecture for Japanese Psychological Association Convention, Osaka, Sep 2010.

Now you see it, now you don’t: Shedding light on the Thatcher Illusion. Invited symposium talk, Japanese Psychological Association Convention, Osaka, Sep 2010.

Adaptation and aftereffects in normal and disordered face perception. Invited colloquium, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, September 2010.

Adaptive processes in normal and disordered face recognition. Keynote lecture for 15th Attention and Perception Conference, Chiayi, Taiwan, Oct 2010.

Facial Attractiveness: The Psychology and Biology of Beauty. Keynote lecture for 15th Attention and Perception Conference, Chiayi, Taiwan, Oct 2010.

Faces are represented relative to race-specific norms. Invited student talk, European Conference on Visual Perception, Lausanne, Switzerland, August 2010 (R. Armann, L. Jeffery, A. J. Calder, I. Bülthoff, G. Rhodes).

Children’s face coding is norm-based rather than exemplar-based: Evidence from face identity afterefffects. Poster, Vision Sciences Society, Florida, May 2010 (L. Jeffery, G. Rhodes, E. McKone, E. Pellicano, K. Crookes & L. Taylor).

Race-specific norms for coding face identity and a functional role for norms. Poster, Vision Sciences Society, Florida, May 2010 (R. Armann, L. Jeffery, A. W. Calder, I. Büelhoff & G. Rhodes).

Adaptive norm-based coding of faces, or why faces don’t all look the same. Invited symposium paper, SEPEX/EPS combined meeting, Granada, Spain, April 2010 (G. Rhodes, E. Jaquet, L. Jeffery & E. Evangelista).

Eye-gaze aftereffects in autism: Further evidence of weakened adaptive mechanisms. Invited symposium paper, SEPEX/EPS combined meeting, Granada, Spain, April 2010 (E. Pellicano & G. Rhodes).

Specificity of face processing impairments in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Paper presented at SEPEX/EPS combined meeting, Granada, Spain, April 2010 (L. Ewing, E. Pellicano & G. Rhodes). [Also presented at Newcastle University].

Adaptation and aftereffects in normal and disordered face perception. Keynote address, Australian Psychological Society, Darwin, Sep 2009; Invited colloquium, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia, Nov 2009.

What can visual adaptation and aftereffects tell us about face processing impairments in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders? Meeting of the Australian Psychological Society, Darwin, Oct 2009 (L. Ewing, G. Rhodes & L. Pellicano).

Is it a girl or a boy? Adaptive coding of gender in autism. International Meeting for Autism Research, Chicago, USA, May 2009 (E. Pellicano, E. Jaquet, L. Jeffery & G. Rhodes).

Dissociating contributions of configural and component information to the own-race advantage in face recognition. Poster, Vision Sciences Society, Florida, May 2009 (W. G. Hayward, M. Zhao, O. Cheung, G. Rhodes & I. Gauthier).

The electrophysiological susbstrates of face-selective adaptation. Poster, Vision Sciences Society, Florida, May 2009 (A. Burkhardt, B. Schneider, G. Rhodes, L. Jeffery, D. Wyatte, J. DeLong, L. Blaha & T. Busey).

What norms are used in norm-based coding of identity? Paper presented at the Experimental Psychology Society meeting, Wollongong, April 2009 (G. Rhodes, E. Jaquet, L. Jeffery, E. Evangelista, J. Keane & A. J. Calder).

Adaptive norm-based coding of facial identity in children: The face identity aftereffect is selective for opposite identities. Paper presented at the Experimental Psychology Society meeting, Wollongong, April 2009. (L. Jeffery, G. Rhodes & E. Pellicano).

Configural and component processing of own-race and other-race faces. Invited Symposium paper, Asia-Pacific Conference on Vision, Brisbane, Australia, July 2008 (W. G. Hayward, M. Zhao & G. Rhodes).

Face aftereffects during development: Pre-school children show adaptive norm-based coding of faces. Invited Symposium paper, Asia-Pacific Conference on Vision, Brisbane, Australia, July 2008 (L. Jeffery, E. McKone, R. Haynes, E. Firth & G. Rhodes).

The fusiform face area spontaneously codes spatial relations in faces. Poster, Vision Sciences Society, Florida, May 2008 (G. Rhodes, P. Michie, M. Hughes & G. Byatt).

It’s more than just physical: The contribution of social category information to race-selective face aftereffects. Poster, Vision Sciences Society, Florida, May 2008 (E. Jaquet, G. Rhodes & W. G. Hayward).

Other-race faces: Limitations of expert face processing. Poster, Vision Sciences Society, Florida, May 2008 (N. Elms, C. J. Mondloch, D. Maurer, W. G. Hayward, G. Rhodes, J. Tanaka & G. Zhou).

Aftereffects reveal enhanced face-coding plasticity in young children. Poster, Vision Sciences Society, Florida, May 2008 (L. Jeffery & G. Rhodes).

Adaptive processes in normal and disordered face perception. Paper presented at the Experimental Psychology Society meeting, Perth, March 2008 (G. Rhodes, E. Pellicano, L. Jeffery & D. Burr).

More than just a pretty face? Male averageness and female symmetry signal genetic quality. Paper presented at the Experimental Psychology Society meeting, Perth, March 2008 (H. Lie, G. Rhodes & L. Simmons). [STUDENT PRIZE]

Aftereffects reveal enhanced face-coding plasticity in young children. Paper presented at the Experimental Psychology Society meeting, Perth, March 2008 (L. Jeffery & G. Rhodes).

Have you “got the look”? Gaze direction affects facial attractiveness. Paper presented at the Experimental Psychology Society meeting, Perth, March 2008 (L. Ewing, G. Rhodes & E. Pellicano).

Adaptive processes in normal and disordered face recognition. Invited presentation, 7th Tsukuba International Conference on Memory, Tsukuba, Japan, March 2008 (G. Rhodes, E. Pellicano, E. Jaquet & L. Jeffery).

Adaptive processes in normal and disordered face perception. Invited talk, Bristol Vision Group, Dec 2007; Invited talk, Face Perception Symposium, Université Catholique de Louvain, Dec 2007.

Does attractiveness provide clues to semen quality in human males? Poster presented at the Biology of Spermatozoa Meeting, DerbyShire UK, September 2007. (M. Peters, G. Rhodes & L. W. Simmons)

The role of testosterone in human sexual selection. Poster presented at the summer meeting of the Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, September 2007 (M. Peters, L. W. Simmons & G. Rhodes)

More than just a pretty face? Heterozygosity and facial attractiveness. Paper presented at the summer meeting of the Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, Sep 2007 (H. Lie, L. Simmons & G. Rhodes).

The timecourse of higher-level face aftereffects. Paper presented at the Experimental Psychology Society meeting, Canberra, April 2007 (G. Rhodes, L. Jeffery, C. Clifford & D. Leopold)

Effects of perceived race on face processing. Paper presented at the Experimental Psychology Society meeting, Canberra, April 2007 (H. Lie, L. A. Ewing, G. Rhodes & J. W. Tanaka)

Broadly tuned, view-specific coding of face shape: Opposing figural aftereffects can be induced in different views. Paper presented at the Experimental Psychology Society meeting, Canberra, April 2007 (L. Jeffery, G. Rhodes & T. Busey)

Children adapting to the world: Evidence of norm-based coding of faces in 8-year-olds. Poster presented at the Society for Research on Child Development meeting, Boston, March 2007 (M. Nishimura, D. Maurer, G. Rhodes, L. Jeffery, L. Pellicano); also presented at the Center for Vision Research Conference, York University, Toronto, June 2007.

Pre-schoolers’ sensitivity to holistic and configural cues in faces. Paper presented at the Society for Research on Child Development pre-conference workshop on Development of Face Processing, Boston, March 2007 (L. Pellicano & G. Rhodes)

Face perception in autism: is identity coded relative to a norm? Paper presented at the Experimental Psychology Society, University College London, UK, Jan 2007 (E. Pellicano, L. Jeffery & G. Rhodes)

Don’t I know you? Enhanced recognition of facial identity following adaptation. Paper presented at the Australian Neuroscience Society, Sydney 2006 (T. Watson, G. Rhodes, & C. W. G. Clifford)

Effects of exposure to thin and fat bodies on perceptions of body normality and ideals in body
satisfied and dissatisfied women. Paper presented at Appearance Matters 2, Bath, UK, June 2007 (R. Glauert, G. Rhodes, S. Byrne, B, Fink & K. Grammer)

Norm-based coding of faces adapts to help us identify those around us. Poster, Vision Sciences Society, Florida, May 2006 (T. Watson, G. Rhodes & C. W. G. Clifford)

Is the average face special? Poster, Vision Sciences Society, Florida, May 2006 (G. Rhodes, L. T. Maloney, J. Turner, & L. Ewing)

View-specific coding of face-shape. Poster, Vision Sciences Society, Florida, May 2006 (L. Jeffery, G. Rhodes & T. Busey)

Figural aftereffects transfer, but are also contingent on, race categories. Poster, Vision Sciences Society, Florida, May 2006 (E. Jaquet, G. Rhodes & W. Hayward)

The evolution of beauty. Invited Jo Wales Seminar, Townsville, Jame Cook University. Nov, 2005.

Face aftereffects reveal face coding mechanisms. Invited colloquia, University of Queensland, University of New South Wales, Oct-Nov, 2005. University of Western Australia, July 2005.

Relative contributions of the face and body to overall attractiveness. Paper presented at the Australasian Evolution Society Meeting, Fremantle, Australia, September 2005. (M. Peters, G. Rhodes & L. Simmons).

Norm-based coding of face identity. Paper presented at the European Conference on Visual Perception, La Coruna, Spain, August 2005. (G. Rhodes & L. Jeffery).

Norm-based opponent coding of face identity. Invited colloquium, University of Oxford and MRC Cognitive and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, England, August 2005. (G. Rhodes & L. Jeffery).

Exploring face-space using the psychologist’s microelectrode: What face aftereffects can tell us about face perception. Invited speaker, Expert Meeting on Face Perception, Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium, September 2005. (G. Rhodes & L. Jeffery).

Norm-based opponent coding of face identity. Paper presented at the Experimental Psychology Society meeting, Melbourne, April 2005. (G. Rhodes & L. Jeffery).

Do you see what I see? Body dissatisfaction and the perception of normal weight. Paper presented at the Experimental Psychology Society meeting, Melbourne, April 2005. (R. Glauert, G. Rhodes & S. Byrne).

The relative contributions of the face and body to overall attractiveness. Paper presented at the Experimental Psychology Society meeting, Melbourne, April 2005. (M. Peters, G. Rhodes & L. Simmons).

Do face aftereffects transfer across views? Paper presented at the Experimental Psychology Society meeting, Melbourne, April 2005. (L. Jeffery, G. Rhodes & T. Busey).

Can we process own- and other-race faces independently? Paper presented at the Experimental Psychology Society meeting, Melbourne, April 2005. (E. Jaquet & G. Rhodes).

The Upsides and Downsides of Face Recognition: The Effect of Contact and Inversion on the Recognition of Other-Race Faces. Paper presented at the Experimental Psychology Society meeting, Melbourne, April 2005 (K. Hancock & G. Rhodes).

The dynamics of visual adaptation to faces. VSS, Sarasota, Florida, May 2005 (D. A. Leopold, G. Rhodes, K-M Mueller & L. Jeffery).

Own-race face effects in processing of configural and component information by Chinese participants. VSS, Sarasota, Florida, May 2005 (W. Hayward, G. Rhodes, A. Schwaninger & C. Winkler).

Face adaptation contingent on orientation. VSS, Sarasota, Florida, May 2005 (T. L. Watson, G. Rhodes & C. W. G. Clifford).

Research profile
Research profile and publications
 

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