The University of Western Australia

UWA Staff Profile

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Geoffrey Hammond

E/Prof Geoff Hammond

Emeritus Professor
Psychological Science, School of

Contact details
School of Psychological Science
The University of Western Australia (M304)
35 Stirling Highway
+61 8 6488 3236 / +61 8 6488 3636
+61 8 6488 1006
BPsych W.Aust., PhD Roch.
BPsych (Hons), University of Western Australia, 1967
PhD, University of Rochester, New York, 1973
Key research
My lab is using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to study cortical motor function (particularly hand function) in conscious behaving humans. Much of this work examines the function of the inhibitory and excitatory circuits within motor cortex which have been implicated in modulating its output (in shaping and refining the movement that is produced) and in its capacity for functional reorganization with experience. Studies are in progress on the motor cortical mechanisms of manual dexterity and handedness (the asymmetry of manual dexterity) and on use-dependent reorganization of motor cortex.
Motor control and reflex organisation
Behavioral neuroscience and experimental psychology
Research design and methodology

Publications: Journal Articles
Vallence, A-M.,. Reilly, K.T., & Hammond, G.R (in press). Excitability of intracortical inhibitory and facilitatory circuits during ischemic nerve block. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience.

Vallence, A-M., Hammond, G.R., & Reilly, K.T. (2012). Increase in flexor but not extensor corticospinal motor outputs following ischemic nerve block. Journal of Neurophysiology, 107, 3417-3427.

Leow, L., Loftus, A.M., & Hammond, G.R. (2012). Impaired savings despite intact initial learning of motor adaptation in Parkinson’s Disease. Experimental Brain Research, 218, 295-304.

Nulsen, C., Fox, A., & Hammond, G. (2011). Electrophysiological indices of altered working memory processes in long-term ecstasy users. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, 26, 488-497.

Baumert, A. Sinclair, C., MacLeod, C., & Hammond, G.R. (2011). Negative emotional processing induced by spoken scenarios modulates corticospinal excitability. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience, 11, 404-412.

Clark, J., Loftus, A., & Hammond, G. (2011). Age-related changes in short-interval intracortical facilitation and dexterity. NeuroReport, 22, 499-503.

Marneweck, M., Loftus, A.M., & Hammond, G.R. (2011). Short-interval intracortical inhibition and manual dexterity in healthy aging. Neuroscience Research, 70, 408-414. .

Nulsen, C.E., Fox, A.M., & Hammond, G.R. (2010). Differential effects of ecstasy on short-term and working memory: A meta-analysis. Neuropsychology Review, 20(1), 21-32.

Nulsen, C.E., Fox, A.M., & Hammond, G.R. (2010). Processes contributing to forward and backward span: An ERP investigation. NeuroReport, 21, 298-302.

Dragovic, M. & Hammond, G. (2009). A joint occurrence of atypical behavioural lateralisation and schizophrenia: coincidental or causative? Review of Psychology 15, 45-56.

Sinclair, C. & Hammond, G.R. (2009). Excitatory and inhibitory processes in primary motor cortex during the foreperiod of a warned reaction time task are unrelated to response expectancy. Experimental Brain Research, 194, 103-113.

Hayes, S., MacLeod, C., & Hammond, G. (2008). Anxiety-linked task performance: Dissociating the influence of restricted working memory capacity and increased investment of effort. Cognition and Emotion, 23, 753–781.

Dragovic, M., Milenkovic, S., & Hammond, G. (2008). The distribution of hand preference is discrete: A taxometric examination. British Journal of Psychology, 99, 445-459.

Hammond, G.R. & Gunasekera, S. (2008). Production of successive force impulses by the left and right hands. Journal of Motor Behavior, 40, 409-416
Tan, M.N., Robertson, D., & Hammond, G.R. (2008). Separate contributions of enhanced and suppressed sensitivity to the auditory attentional filter. Hearing Research, 241, 18-25.

Sinclair, C. & Hammond, G.R. (2008). Reduced intracortical inhibition during the foreperiod of a warned reaction time task. Experimental Brain Research, 186, 385-392.

Hammond, G.R. & Gillooly, N.J. (2008). Asymmetric facilitation from repeated paired magnetic stimulation of human motor cortex. NeuroReport, 19, 479-482.

Robertson, L.J., Drummond, P.D., & Hammond., G.R. (2008). The effect of subcutaneous naloxone on experimentally-induced pain. The Journal of Pain, 9, 79-87.

Hammond, G.R. & Vallence, A-M. (2007). Modulation of long-interval intracortical inhibition and the silent period by voluntary contraction. Brain Research, 1158, 63-70.

Robertson, L.J.,. Drummond, P.D., & Hammond., G.R. (2007). Naloxone antagonizes the local antihyperalgesic effect of fentanyl in burnt skin of healthy humans. The Journal of Pain, 8, 489-493.

Dragovic, M., Hammond, G.R. (2007). A classification of handedness using the Annett Hand Preference Questionnaire. British Journal of Psychology, 98, 375-387.

Sinclair, C., Faulkner, D., & Hammond, G. (2006). Flexible real-time control of MagStim 2002 units for use in transcranial magnetic stimulation studies. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 158, 133-136.

Hammond, G.R. & Vallence, A-M. (2006). Asymmetrical facilitation of motor-evoked potentials following motor practice. NeuroReport, 17, 805-807.

Reilly, K.T. & Hammond, G.R. (2006). Intrinsic hand muscles and digit independence on the preferred and non-preferred hands of humans. Experimental Brain Research, 173, 564-571.

Hammond, G.R. & Garvey, C.-A. (2006). Asymmetries of long-latency intracortical inhibition in motor cortex and handedness. Experimental Brain Research, 172, 449-453.

Benwell, N.M., Sacco P., Hammond, G.R., Byrnes, M.L., Mastaglia, F.L., & Thickbroom, G.W. (2006). Short-interval cortical inhibition and corticomotor excitability with fatiguing hand exercise: a central adaptation to fatigue? Experimental Brain Research, 170, 191-198.
Dragovic, M., Hammond, G., & Jablensky, A. (2005). Schizotypy and mixed-handedness revisited. Psychiatry Research, 136, 143-152.
Dragovic, M, Hammond, G.R., Badcock J.C., & Jablensky, A. (2005). Laterality phenotypes in patients with schizophrenia, their siblings and controls: associations with clinical and cognitive variables. British Journal of Psychiatry, 187, 221-228.

Dragovic, M., Hammond, G.R. (2005). Handedness in schizophrenia: a quantitative review of evidence. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 111, 410-419.

Hammond, G.R. & Fox, A.M. (2005). Electrophysiological evidence for lateralization of preparatory motor processes. NeuroReport, 16, 559-562.

Hammond, G.R., Seth, Y., & Ison, J.R. (2005). Concurrent measurement of the detectability of tone bursts and their effect on the excitability of the human blink reflex using a probe-signal method. Hearing Research, 202, 28-34.

Keane, V.P., Hammond, G.R., Keane, H., & Hewitt, J. (2005). Quantitative evaluation of counseling associated with HIV testing. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 36, 1-5.

Reilly, K.T. & Hammond, G.R. (2004). Human handedness: Is there a difference in the independence of the digits on the preferred and non-preferred hands? Experimental Brain Research, 156, 255-262.

Hammond, G.R., Faulkner, D., Byrnes, M.L., Mastaglia, F.L, & Thickbroom, G.W. (2004). Transcranial magnetic stimulation reveals asymmetrical efficacy of intracortical circuits in primary motor cortex. Experimental Brain Research, 155, 19-23.

Hammond, T.J., Bailey, W.J., & Hammond, G.R. (2003). An automatic acoustic response system for behavioural studies of duetting insects. Bioacoustics, 14, 3-14.

Ison, J.R., Virag, T.M., Allen, P.D., & Hammond, G.R. (2002). The listening band for detecting tonal signals masked in noise does not change with age. Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, 112, 238-246.

Hammond, G.R. (2002). Correlates of human handedness in primary motor cortex: a review and hypothesis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 26, 285-292.

Lawson, C., MacLeod, C., & Hammond, G. (2002). Interpretation revealed in the blink of an eye: Depressive bias in the resolution of ambiguity. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 321-328.

Reilly, K.T., & Hammond, G.R. (2001). Modification of the human blink reflex by transient and sustained features of acoustic prestimulation. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 1, 105-114.

Hammond, G.R. (2001). Effects of lateralized gaps in noise on the cutaneous blink reflex in humans. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 1, 297-303.

Reilly, K.T., & Hammond, G.R. (2000). Independence of force production by digits of the human hand. Neuroscience Letters, 290, 53-56.
Smyth, M., Anderson, M., & Hammond, G.R. (1999). The modified blink reflex and individual differences in speed of processing. Intelligence, 27, 13-35.

Hammond, G.R., Driscoll, P., & Rowley, K. (1997). Temporal integration shown in the late component of the human blink reflex. Psychobiology, 25, 59-65.

Keane, V.P., deKlerk, N.H., Krieng, T., Hammond, G.R., & Musk, W.A. (1997). Risk factors for the development of non-response to first-line treatment for tuberculosis in Southern Vietnam. International Journal of Epidemiology, 26, 1115-1120.

Hammond, G.R. (1996). The objections to null hypothesis testing as a means of analysing psychological data. Australian Journal of Psychology, 48, 104-106.

Hammond, G.R., Thompson, T., Proffitt, T., and Driscoll, P. (1996). Functional significance of the early component of the human blink reflex. Behavioral Neuroscience, 110, 7-12.

Hammond, G.R., & Choo, C. (1994). Changes in spinal reflex excitability in a countermanded timed response task. Journal of Motor Behavior, 26, 187-195
Hammond, G.R., & Plant, Y. (1993). Augmentation of the early component of the human blink reflex with closely-spaced stimulus pairs. Psychobiology, 21, 69-76.

Hammond, G.R., Thompson, T., & Campbell, L. (1993). Judgments of moving and intending to move in a timed-response task. Psychological Research, 55, 144-147.

Leitner, D.S., Hammond, G.R., Springer, C.P., Ingham, K.M., Mekilo, A.M., Bodison, P.R., Aranda, M.T., & Shawaryn, M.A. (1993). Parameters affecting gap detection in the rat. Perception & Psychophysics, 54, 395-405.

Hammond, G.R., & Dennon, S. (1991). Temporal integration shown in the early and late components of the human blink reflex. Psychobiology, 19, 180-186.

Hammond, G.R., & Leitner, D.L. (1990). Augmentation of the rat's acoustic startle reflex by non-reflexogenic stimuli. Behavioral Neuroscience, 104, 841-848.

Manning, J.J., & Hammond, G.R. (1990). The effect of motor preparation on changes in H reflex amplitude during the response latency of a warned reaction time task. Journal of Motor Behavior, 22, 292-314.

Truman, G., & Hammond, G.R. (1990). Temporal regularity of tapping by the left and right hands in timed and untimed finger tapping. Journal of Motor Behavior, 22, 521-535.

Plant, Y., & Hammond, G.R. (1989). Temporal integration of acoustic and cutaneous stimuli shown in the blink reflex. Perception & Psychophysics, 45, 258-264.
Trotman, S.C.A., & Hammond, G.R. (1989). Lateral asymmetry of the scalp distribution of somatosensory evoked potential amplitude. Brain and Cognition, 10, 132-147.

Hammond, G.R., Bolton, Y., Plant, Y., & Manning, J.J. (1988). Asymmetries of inter-response intervals during repetitive finger tapping. Journal of Motor Behavior, 20, 67-71.

Chang, P., & Hammond, G.R. (1987). Mutual interactions between speech and finger movements. Journal of Motor Behavior, 19, 265-268.
Hammond, G.R., & Mann, G. (1985). Bilateral symmetry of the time course of early facilitation of the Hoffman reflex. Physiological Psychology, 213, 268-270.

Hammond, G.R., & Jordan, P.M. (1984). Bilateral electrodermal activity during performance of cognitive tasks of varying difficulty levels. Physiological Psychology, 12, 256-260.

Evans, J.G.M., & Hammond, G.R. (1983). Habituation and recovery of orienting in rats as a function of stimulus significance. Animal Learning and Behavior, 11, 424-430.

Evans, J.G.M., & Hammond, G.R. (1983). Differential generalization of habituation across contexts as a function of stimulus significance. Animal Learning and Behavior, 11, 431-434.

Martin, R.L., & Hammond, G.R. (1983). Lateral hypothalamic electrode implantation disrupts lithium-chloride-based generalized aversion to sodium chloride by enhancing sodium appetite. Physiological Psychology, 11, 63-72.

Hammond, G.R. (1982). Hemispheric differences in temporal resolution. Brain and Cognition, 1, 95-118.

Hammond, G.R., & Kaplan, R.J. (1982). Language lateralization and handedness: Estimates based on clinical data. Brain and Language, 16, 348-351.

Hammond, G.R. (1981). Finer temporal acuity for stimuli applied to the preferred hand. Neuropsychologia, 19, 325-329.

Hammond, G.R. (1980). Lesions of the medial medullary reticular formation in rats impair CER acquisition. Physiological Psychology, 8, 483-486.

Trotman, S.C.A., & Hammond, G.R. (1979). Sex differences in task-dependent EEG asymmetries. Psychophysiology, 16, 429-431.

Hammond, G.R. (1974). Frontal cortical lesions and prestimulus inhibition of the rat's acoustic startle reaction. Physiological Psychology, 2, 151-156.

Hammond, G.R. (1973). Lesions of pontine and medullary reticular formation and prestimulus inhibition of the acoustic startle reaction in rats. Physiology and Behavior, 10, 239-243.

Hammond, G.R., & Ison, J.R. (1973). Stimulus-produced reflex inhibition in the rat during induction and recovery from barbiturate anesthesia. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 84, 436-444.

Ison, J.R., Hammond, G.R., & Krauter, E.E. (1973). Effects of experience on stimulus-produced reflex inhibition in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 83, 324-336.

Ison, J.R., McAdam, D.W., & Hammond, G.R. (1973). Latency and amplitude changes in the acoustic startle reflex of the rat produced by variation in auditory prestimulation. Physiology and Behavior, 10, 1035-1039.

Hammond, G.R., McAdam, D.W., & Ison, J.R. (1972). Effects of prestimulation on the electromyographic response associated with the acoustic startle reaction in rats. Physiology and Behavior, 8, 535-537.

Hammond, G.R., & Thomas, G.J. (1971). Failure to reactivate the septal syndrome in rats. Physiology and Behavior, 6, 599-601.
Ison, J.R., & Hammond, G.R. (1971). Modification of the startle reflex in the rat by changes in the auditory and visual environments. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 75, 435-452.

Di Lollo, V., Davidson, R.C., Hammond, G.R., & Donovan, R.J. (1968). The relative effects of non-reward and response thwarting on the frustration effect. Psychonomic Science, 10, 31-32.

Publication: Edited Book
Hammond, G.R. (1990). (Ed.). Cerebral control of speech and limb movements. Amsterdam: North Holland, 711pp.

Publication: Chapter in an Edited Book
Hammond, G.R. (1990). Manual performance asymmetries. In G.R. Hammond (Ed.), Cerebral control of speech and limb movements (pp. 59-77). Amsterdam: North Holland.
Funding received
Medullary reticular formation in the detection of and response to noxious stimulation. Australian Research Grants Committee, 1974 – 1976.
Excitability of the human blink reflex. Australian Research Council, 1991 – 1993.
Psychological processes and the human blink reflex. Australian Research Council, 1994 – 1996.
Does selective attention to an auditory stimulus enhance its inhibition of reflex behaviour? Australian Research Council, 1997 – 1998 (awarded to G.R. Hammond & J.R. Ison).
Intracortical motor inhibition and human handedness. UWA Small Research Grant, 2001 (awarded to G.R. Hammond, G. Thickbroom, & M. Byrnes).
Experience-dependent plasticity in the left and right motor cortices of humans. UWA Small Research Grant, 2005 (awarded to G.R. Hammond). $11, 000
Processes for enhancing hearing. National Health & Medical Research Council project grant, 2010-2013 awarded to Robertson, D., Hammond, G, & Atlas, M.).
Honours and awards
Research Studentship, University of Rochester 1968 – 1972
PhD Preliminary Examinations with Distinction, University of Rochester, 1971
Previous positions
Assistant Lecturer, University of Rochester. Summer Session 1971 and Fall Semester 1971.
Temporary Lecturer, University of Western Australia, 1973.
Lecturer, University of Western Australia, 1974 – 1984.
Senior Lecturer, University of Western Australia, 1985–1991.
Associate Professor, University of Western Australia, 1992 – 2002.
Winthrop Professor, University of Western Australia, 2003 – 2011.
Senior Honorary Research Fellow, University of Western Australia, 2012 continuing.

Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Medicine and Toxicology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD. January – June, 1979.
Visiting Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, St Joseph's University, Philadelphia, PA. March – July, 1988.
Research profile
Research profile and publications

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Tuesday, 3 November, 2015 2:39 PM